Comparison of USE and conventional extraction (CE) on the taurine yield.Extraction typeTemperature (°C)Time (min)Taurine yield (mg/g)aUSE (300.0 W)404013.2 ± 0.22CE (250 rpm)4036012.9 ± 0.11CE (250 rpm)7024013.0 ± 0.17aMean ± SD (n = 3).Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Ultrasound has been widely utilized in large scale commercial applications as agenerase food processing technology  and . The use of ultrasound extraction methods on a commercial scale has led to improvements in product efficiency, process enhancement, and low maintenance costs  and . In Monera study, only 38.3 min in water (a green environmental solvent) is needed to recover taurine from P. yezoensis with a higher yield and a shorter extraction time compared to conventional extraction procedures. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted taurine extraction will help the development of the UAE process for use in industrial processes. However, further studies regarding large scale UAE experiments are required.
As shown in Fig. 2(a), two strong GDC0941 bands with frequencies at 1737 and 1448 cm−1 are displayed in the FT-IR spectrum of the magnetic PGMA, and they can be assigned to the CO stretching of the carbonyl groups of GMA and the CC stretching of the benzene ring of DVB, respectively, revealing that copolymerization of GMA and DVB is successful. After interpenetration of PDVB in the pores of the magnetic PGMA, these two bands are found in the FT-IR spectrum of the obtained PGMA/PDVB IPNs. In particular, the absorption band at 1644 cm−1 related to the CC symmetry stretching also appears for PGMA/PDVB IPNs, implying that interpenetration of PDVB in the pores of PGMA is successful and the obtained PGMA/PDVB IPNs is a typical IPNs. After the amination reaction, a broad vibration appears between 3335 and 3500 cm−1, and this vibration is concerned with the N–H stretching of the –NH2/–NH– groups  and . The absorption at 3600 cm−1 may be related to the O–H stretching ,  and . Meanwhile, a vibrational band related to the N–H deformation is observed at 1512 cm−1, another vibration associated with the C–N stretching appears at 1058 cm−1. Additionally, the weak basic exchange capacity of the magnetic PMADETA/PDVB IPNs is measured to be 3.2 mmol/g, whereas those of PGMA and PGMA/PDVB IPNs are determined to be 0, implying that the PGMA networks in the IPNs are transformed to PMADETA networks successfully and the magnetic PMADETA/PDVB IPNs was synthesized accordingly.
Fig. 3. Scheme of the experimental setup used to perform the catalytic tests.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
In E-64-c typical experiment, a DPF was placed into the reactor and valves 1 and 3 (see Fig. 3) were kept open while valves 2 and 4 remained closed in order to force an air stream to pass through the DPF due to the action of a vacuum pump. Then, the desired amount of soot (Printex U) was fed, as indicated in the Fig. 3, being collected in the DPF. Most experiments were carried out with 50 mg of soot, otherwise indicated. Once soot was loaded into the DPF, valves 1 and 3 were closed, valves 2 and 4 were open in order to allow the reactive gas mixture to flow through the reactor and the temperature was raised at 10 °C/min from room temperature to 800 °C.
The soot conversion profiles were determined from CO and CO2 evolved, and the carbon mass balances were closed with an albinism average experimental error of 10%.
2.4. SEM-chemical mapping characterization
2. Types of reactors and process design in plastic waste pyrolysis
Over the past few decades scientists have discovered that in the absence of oxygen, plastic, which consist of long chain NHS-LC-Biotin chain, can be fragmented at high temperature to form oligomers. The term pyrolysis was used to refer to such process, although it normally refers to thermochemical decomposition of organic materials at high temperature in the absence of oxygen. In some context, the term “cracking” is used instead of pyrolysis. Nowadays, carbohydrates is a common practice to differentiate thermal pyrolysis from catalytic pyrolysis. The former refers to the decomposition of polymers due to the application of heat alone, while the latter refers to the processes where catalyst is utilized to alter the reaction mechanism of pyrolysis, hence the products yield and composition. Some recent studies focused on plastics waste pyrolysis using different processes are shown in Table 3.
2.1. Batch and semi-batch reactor
Thus, the RDL 1/2012 of January 2012  temporarily suspended the procedure of registration in the RPAR and suppressed the economic incentives of the RD 661/2007 for the new facilities of the SR. This measure would not affect neither operating plants nor those already inscribed in the RPAR.
On the other hand, the Law 15/2012 of December 2012  introduced a new 7% tax on the gross revenues of all electricity producers and cancelled tax exemptions for the S peptide products used in the electricity generation. Additionally, the FIT was suppressed for the percentage of electricity generated with fuels in certain RE plants. In the case of CSP facilities that meant a cumulative fall in revenue between 19% to 22% (7%+(12% to 15%)), besides new taxes to the energy products employed to warm up the heat-transfer fluid.
Also, the RDL 29/2012 of December 2012  excluded from the economic framework of RD 661/2007 the plants that were not fully completed before the deadline or with elements not reflected in the implementation project. It was explicitly defined when a facility could be considered as fully completed and when not.
Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show the mean proportions of embodied, direct, and indirect energy consumption (Fig. 4) and of the corresponding carbon footprints (Fig. 5) by the six metabolic actors shown in Fig. 1. The proportions of energy consumption for each actor were similar to the corresponding proportions for the carbon footprint. The embodied energy consumption and carbon footprint of the secondary NECA (i.e., the advanced manufacturing and processing sectors) were both the largest, but the carbon footprint of these sectors had a larger proportion of the total than the energy consumption, with values of 44.0 and 41.0%, respectively. This indicated that the advanced manufacturing and processing sectors had low emission efficiency. The third and fourth largest embodied consumption and embodied carbon footprint were for primary consumers (i.e., the primary manufacturing and processing sectors) and top consumers (i.e., the construction sector and the domestic consumption sector), respectively. Their embodied energy consumption accounted for 15.2 and 14.7% of the total, respectively, versus embodied carbon footprints of 18.3 and 13.0%, respectively. These results showed that the primary consumers had low emission efficiency, whereas the top consumers had high emission efficiency.
The rate of solar AR-M 1896 reflected by the internal reflector and absorbed by the water (qw−int) and by the absorber (qb−int) is given as:equation(303)qw−int=I(t)drτgρintαwlbtanθcosφtan?equation(304)qb−int=αbαw(qw−intτw)
From the numerical simulation of the active still, it was observed that the addition of reflectors improved the daily production of the still about 127.06% in winter, 21.78% in spring and 10.1% in summer. Also the coupling of the still with a thermal storage tank led to an increase of the production rate equal to 17.36%, 28.34% and 33% respectively for winter, spring and summer. The daily production rate of the still coupled with the photovoltaic/thermal system was about 47.61% in winter, 137.5% in spring and 131.06% in summer. It was concluded that the effect of the reflectors on the increase of the daily production of the still is very significant during the period of winter compared to the spring and summer but on the other hand, the storage tank is far more important in spring and summer in comparison with winter.