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1 year ago

Table Comparison of USE and conventional extraction CE on

Table 5.
Comparison of USE and conventional extraction (CE) on the taurine yield.Extraction typeTemperature (°C)Time (min)Taurine yield (mg/g)aUSE (300.0 W)404013.2 ± 0.22CE (250 rpm)4036012.9 ± 0.11CE (250 rpm)7024013.0 ± 0.17aMean ± SD (n = 3).Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
Ultrasound has been widely utilized in large scale commercial applications as agenerase food processing technology [17] and [27]. The use of ultrasound extraction methods on a commercial scale has led to improvements in product efficiency, process enhancement, and low maintenance costs [27] and [28]. In Monera study, only 38.3 min in water (a green environmental solvent) is needed to recover taurine from P. yezoensis with a higher yield and a shorter extraction time compared to conventional extraction procedures. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted taurine extraction will help the development of the UAE process for use in industrial processes. However, further studies regarding large scale UAE experiments are required.

1 year ago

As shown in Fig nbsp a

As shown in Fig. 2(a), two strong GDC0941 bands with frequencies at 1737 and 1448 cm−1 are displayed in the FT-IR spectrum of the magnetic PGMA, and they can be assigned to the CO stretching of the carbonyl groups of GMA and the CC stretching of the benzene ring of DVB, respectively, revealing that copolymerization of GMA and DVB is successful. After interpenetration of PDVB in the pores of the magnetic PGMA, these two bands are found in the FT-IR spectrum of the obtained PGMA/PDVB IPNs. In particular, the absorption band at 1644 cm−1 related to the CC symmetry stretching also appears for PGMA/PDVB IPNs, implying that interpenetration of PDVB in the pores of PGMA is successful and the obtained PGMA/PDVB IPNs is a typical IPNs. After the amination reaction, a broad vibration appears between 3335 and 3500 cm−1, and this vibration is concerned with the N–H stretching of the –NH2/–NH– groups [41] and [42]. The absorption at 3600 cm−1 may be related to the O–H stretching [43], [44] and [45]. Meanwhile, a vibrational band related to the N–H deformation is observed at 1512 cm−1, another vibration associated with the C–N stretching appears at 1058 cm−1. Additionally, the weak basic exchange capacity of the magnetic PMADETA/PDVB IPNs is measured to be 3.2 mmol/g, whereas those of PGMA and PGMA/PDVB IPNs are determined to be 0, implying that the PGMA networks in the IPNs are transformed to PMADETA networks successfully and the magnetic PMADETA/PDVB IPNs was synthesized accordingly.

1 year ago

Catalyst active phases loading into the DPFs Two

Fig. 3. Scheme of the experimental setup used to perform the catalytic tests.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
In E-64-c typical experiment, a DPF was placed into the reactor and valves 1 and 3 (see Fig. 3) were kept open while valves 2 and 4 remained closed in order to force an air stream to pass through the DPF due to the action of a vacuum pump. Then, the desired amount of soot (Printex U) was fed, as indicated in the Fig. 3, being collected in the DPF. Most experiments were carried out with 50 mg of soot, otherwise indicated. Once soot was loaded into the DPF, valves 1 and 3 were closed, valves 2 and 4 were open in order to allow the reactive gas mixture to flow through the reactor and the temperature was raised at 10 °C/min from room temperature to 800 °C.
The soot conversion profiles were determined from CO and CO2 evolved, and the carbon mass balances were closed with an albinism average experimental error of 10%.
2.4. SEM-chemical mapping characterization

1 year ago

Types of reactors and process design in plastic

2. Types of reactors and process design in plastic waste pyrolysis
Over the past few decades scientists have discovered that in the absence of oxygen, plastic, which consist of long chain NHS-LC-Biotin chain, can be fragmented at high temperature to form oligomers. The term pyrolysis was used to refer to such process, although it normally refers to thermochemical decomposition of organic materials at high temperature in the absence of oxygen. In some context, the term “cracking” is used instead of pyrolysis. Nowadays, carbohydrates is a common practice to differentiate thermal pyrolysis from catalytic pyrolysis. The former refers to the decomposition of polymers due to the application of heat alone, while the latter refers to the processes where catalyst is utilized to alter the reaction mechanism of pyrolysis, hence the products yield and composition. Some recent studies focused on plastics waste pyrolysis using different processes are shown in Table 3.
Table 3.
2.1. Batch and semi-batch reactor

1 year ago

Thus the RDL of January temporarily suspended the

Thus, the RDL 1/2012 of January 2012 [60] temporarily suspended the procedure of registration in the RPAR and suppressed the economic incentives of the RD 661/2007 for the new facilities of the SR. This measure would not affect neither operating plants nor those already inscribed in the RPAR.
On the other hand, the Law 15/2012 of December 2012 [61] introduced a new 7% tax on the gross revenues of all electricity producers and cancelled tax exemptions for the S peptide products used in the electricity generation. Additionally, the FIT was suppressed for the percentage of electricity generated with fuels in certain RE plants. In the case of CSP facilities that meant a cumulative fall in revenue between 19% to 22% (7%+(12% to 15%)), besides new taxes to the energy products employed to warm up the heat-transfer fluid.
Also, the RDL 29/2012 of December 2012 [62] excluded from the economic framework of RD 661/2007 the plants that were not fully completed before the deadline or with elements not reflected in the implementation project. It was explicitly defined when a facility could be considered as fully completed and when not.

1 year ago

Fig nbsp xA Direct indirect

Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show the mean proportions of embodied, direct, and indirect energy consumption (Fig. 4) and of the corresponding carbon footprints (Fig. 5) by the six metabolic actors shown in Fig. 1. The proportions of energy consumption for each actor were similar to the corresponding proportions for the carbon footprint. The embodied energy consumption and carbon footprint of the secondary NECA (i.e., the advanced manufacturing and processing sectors) were both the largest, but the carbon footprint of these sectors had a larger proportion of the total than the energy consumption, with values of 44.0 and 41.0%, respectively. This indicated that the advanced manufacturing and processing sectors had low emission efficiency. The third and fourth largest embodied consumption and embodied carbon footprint were for primary consumers (i.e., the primary manufacturing and processing sectors) and top consumers (i.e., the construction sector and the domestic consumption sector), respectively. Their embodied energy consumption accounted for 15.2 and 14.7% of the total, respectively, versus embodied carbon footprints of 18.3 and 13.0%, respectively. These results showed that the primary consumers had low emission efficiency, whereas the top consumers had high emission efficiency.

1 year ago

It is observed from the analyses

The rate of solar AR-M 1896 reflected by the internal reflector and absorbed by the water (qw−int) and by the absorber (qb−int) is given as:equation(303)qw−int=I(t)drτgρintαwlbtanθcosφtan?equation(304)qb−int=αbαw(qw−intτw)
From the numerical simulation of the active still, it was observed that the addition of reflectors improved the daily production of the still about 127.06% in winter, 21.78% in spring and 10.1% in summer. Also the coupling of the still with a thermal storage tank led to an increase of the production rate equal to 17.36%, 28.34% and 33% respectively for winter, spring and summer. The daily production rate of the still coupled with the photovoltaic/thermal system was about 47.61% in winter, 137.5% in spring and 131.06% in summer. It was concluded that the effect of the reflectors on the increase of the daily production of the still is very significant during the period of winter compared to the spring and summer but on the other hand, the storage tank is far more important in spring and summer in comparison with winter.

1 year ago

Conclusion A gas phase mixture of benzene and toluene

Tables 2a–c and 3a–c shows the ANOVA results for RE and EC of benzene and toluene, respectively, under the conditions tested in this 17 alpha-propionate study. The main effects were significant for all the RE and EC profiles of benzene and toluene as observed from the very high F and low P values (<0.05). Among the main effects on toluene EC, toluene concentration (T = 37.34, P = 0.017) appears to play a major role than benzene concentration (T = −9.91, P = 0.064) and flow rate (T = 19.23, P = 0.033). In the case of benzene EC, the concentration of toluene (T = −12.19, P = 0.052) affected the EC values more severely than benzene itself (T = 2.23, P = 0.031) The total maximum EC observed in this study was 91.2 g/m3 h at a total ILR of 150.2 g/m3 h. This EC value is nearly 25% higher than the EC values observed in the same biofilter when benzene was treated individually. It should be noticed that at this ILR, nearly 94% of the elimination was contributed due to toluene degradation at higher loading rates. Therefore, phosphorylation is quite apparent that the presence of toluene inhibits the degradation of benzene strongly at higher loading rates, while the presence of benzene has little effect on toluene degradation.

1 year ago

SBBR operation and biofilm culturing When

EDTA disodium salt and sodium formate exhibited a similar cumulative methane production to the control. EDTA disodium salt was expected to enhance methane production by increasing the bioavailability of essential elements (Vintiloiu et al., 2013); however, no additional methane production was observed, possibly because the concentration used in this Doripenem study was significantly higher than that found to be beneficial by Vintiloiu et al. (2013). The methane production of sodium formate was stable, but occurred at a slower rate compared to that of the control. This could be attributed to the high sodium concentration of 1.8 g Na/L, particularly when compared with sodium acetate which contained only 0.7 g Na/L. Additionally, the COD contribution of acetate (1.07 g COD/g) is much larger than formate (0.34 g COD/g) and would have promoted a faster and more consistent rate of methane production (Grobicki and Stuckey, 1989).
Independent of the draw solution and reverse solute flux, elevated salt concentrations would be expected due to the concentration of the natural salinity of wastewater during the FO process. In the case of inorganic draw solutions, further inhibition of methane production and inefficiencies in the anaerobic digestion process could be expected. For the organic draw solutions demonstrated to be beneficial for anaerobic treatment, the salinity of the pre-concentrated wastewater would not be significantly exacerbated by reverse solute flux. Furthermore, significantly higher COD concentrations would be achieved during wastewater pre-concentration as a result of the contribution of reverse solute flux, allowing the opportunity to operate at a lower concentration factor.

1 year ago

The previous tests can be considered as a qualitative

The previous tests can be considered as a qualitative evaluation of the inertia emulation scheme. For the quantitative evaluation of the scheme, Hydro-Quebec's inertial response requirements for the VSWT can be used. The Hydro-Quebec's grid is asynchronous with its neighbors, and hence responsible for its own frequency regulation. In addition, due to lower inertia of the grid, frequency deviations up-to 1.5 Hz have been experienced [8]. In this Vatalanib scenario, to accommodate more generation share from the VSWT, Hydro-Quebec, with active participation from WT manufacturers, is developing a grid code requirement for the inertial response form the VSWT. The inertia emulation requirements under development are more stringent, as they treat wind power generation as conventional generation. In the latest guidelines, the inertia emulation requirement is specified with the help of four parameters: Magnitude and Duration of the injected active power, transition time from deceleration to acceleration, and reduction in WT output power during acceleration. The first two columns of Table 5 show these parameters and their specified limits as per the guidelines.